Erik Erikson was a student of Freud's and subsequently modeled his theory in accordance to Freud's main concepts, while at the same time he focused more on the social aspects of behavior and included factors like contemporary issues and culture in his depiction of social behavioral development. He believed that at different specific age ranges children underwent different primary social crises that they needed to resolve favorably in order to move on in their development. Although Erikson was criticized as Freud for the vagueness of their descriptions, questionable elements, and their lack of testable claims, they both had a substantial influence in the field historically- and Erikson specifically is known for his depiction of adolescents struggle with identity. His theory is organized into eight age-related stages of the crises he considered humans to go through and how this affects their behavior.

Trust vs. Mistrust
(0-1 year of age)
An individual struggles to develop trust in others (mainly caregivers that are key to their survival). A child's development of trust in this stage has a lot to do with the parents; they must display warmth and consistent care for the child to build a basic trust in others- without which they will be unable to form subsequent attachments and a level intimacy with someone further on.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
(1-3 years of age)
An individual struggles to find some independence and autonomy so that they may be less dependent on primary caregivers for everything and may met society's increasing demands. If parents are supportive in children's struggle here, children may develop a good self- esteem and achieve self- control leading them towards this feeling of autonomy.
Initiative vs. Guilt
(3-6 years of age)
An individual strives to develop higher standards and show initiative so they may be freed from their fear of not meeting outward expectations. As Freud described this age range, Erikson believed that at this stage children internalized their parents' principles, beliefs, and value systems and struggled with their need to uphold to these.
Industry vs.

(6-12 years of age)
An individual strives to master the cognitive and social skills indicated by their culture that they must have in order realize their goals, work industrially, and play well with others. This stage is critical in the child developing a strong ego and a sense of competence that will set them with a high self-esteem.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
An individual struggles to develop a sense of self- their individual identity- so that they may subsequently find and understand their role in society. Amongst social pressures, physical changes, hormones, etc. adolescents must find who they are or remain in confusion as to where they fit in this world as adults. (If individuals in this stage try to move on to intimacy without developing a clear sense of self they may adopt their partner's identity in the absence of their own, and be left without one later on in life when their relationship ends)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
(20- 24 years of age)
An individual strives to find love and build a relationship- an intimacy- with someone, sharing their newly found self. Individuals that fail to develop this may resort to promiscuity (too close and short lasting) or isolate themselves from relationships completely.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
(25- 64 years of age)
An individual struggles to make a difference and leave their mark on the world, bettering it for future generations or failing to develop a connection with society and therefore offering it little.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
(65 years of age- til death)
An individual struggles to find wisdom in what they have lived through and experienced, their losses, aging, their success and failures in life, and how they have effected the world- finding peace towards the end of life. If individuals do not find this and cannot let go of regret they will experience despair till the very end.

*All information on this page was derived from source number 1 and 2 found on reference page.*

For more information on Erikson and his theory of psychosocial development consider these sites: