Accommodation: the process by which people adjust their knowledge banks of certain concepts to new information they have received. E.g. although plants don't breathe or move like animals they are also considered living things.
Assimilation: the process by which people revert the information or knowledge they receive into a form they can more easily understand in accordance to what they already know.
Autobiographical Memory: one's own knowledge of the past events of his/her life.
Autonomous Morality: a phase in Piaget's theory of moral judgment in which children of about 11 years of age develop the concept of moral relativism.
Behavior Modification: a type of therapy in which reinforcement patterns are changed in order to encourage desired behavior.
Chronosystem: composed of historical changes that affect the individual and all other systems over time
Classical Conditioning: a form of learning in which a neutral stimuli is associated with a stimuli that naturally evokes a reflexive response until the originally neutral stimulus is able to evoke the same response.
Conservation Concept: the knowledge that changing the appearance of an object does not alter its material properties.
Continuity of Individual Differences: a psychoanalytical theory concept that says childhood experiences alter and mold the subsequent development of the individual.
Deferred Imitation: the instance of recreating other people's behavior a considerable time after this behavior was originally observed. Piaget believed children within the 6th sensorimotor substage (12-18 months of age) learned certain behaviors and acquired certain knowledge of their world through imitations of what they observed of others, e.g. how to play with a toy
Domain Specific: categorized and or restricted to a specific subject area
Ego: the most logical and rational part of our personality structure, according to Freud's personality theory, it mediates between the Id and Superego trying to keep the Id under control, and still satisfying it as much as possible while protecting one from doing something that may end up hurting oneself. The ego is centered on this reality principle.
Electra Complex: characterized by having erotic feelings towards one's father, said to be the reason girls have a weaker conscious according to Freud.
Encoding: the process in which we form a mental representation of information, objects, and or events, that draws our attention or we consider important, in our memory system.
Entity Theory: the belief that the level of intelligence a person possesses set and unchangeable.
Equilibration: the process by which people balance the assimilation and the accommodation processes and form a better understanding of the knowledge concept adjusted.
Exosystem: composed of all of the environmental settings that an individual does not directly experience yet is still indirectly affected by.
Guided Participation: a learning strategy in which an individual who has already mastered a skill set guides an individual who is less knowledgeable in the subject area, allowing the less knowledgeable individual to reach a higher level that they would have normally been able to accomplish at that point by themselves.
Helpless Orientation: the tendency to associate failure and or success to one's self as a reflection on their individual character and the habit of giving up upon facing failure.
Hostile Attribution Bias: according to Dodge's theory, the habit of assuming that others' neutral actions have some hostile intent towards their person.
Id: the most primitive part of our personality, according to Freud's personality structure, that is ruled by our unconscious and biological urges and desires and seeks immediate gratification.
Imprinting: a manifestation of learning in which the newborns of certain species of animals (ducks, geese, etc.) form a unique attachment to an adult member of their species (most often the mother) and follow them around.
Incremental Theory: the belief that one's intelligence level increases with experience.
Infantile Amnesia: the common occurrence of lacking memories of events that happened before the age of three in adults.
Intermittently Reinforced Behavior: behavior that is sometimes followed by some form of positive reinforcement, e.g. gambling
Intersubjectivity: a shared understanding between people as they communicate.
Joint Attention: the phenomenon in which two social beings involved in conversation purposely center their attention on a common point of reference in their surrounding environment.
Long-Term Memory: a memory system in which an unlimited amount of information is held on an enduring basis.
Macrosystem: the cultural context an individual is a part of and within which the other environmental systems are embedded.
Mastery Orientation: the tendency to accredit one's success and or failure to amount of effort invested in the project and the habit of working harder upon failure.
Mesosystem: composed of the interconnections between multiple microsystems.
Microsystem: the direct, bi-directional environment that one is a part of and experiences.
Morality of Constraint: a phase in Piaget's theory of moral judgment in which children under seven years of age, who have not reached Piaget's concrete operations cognitive development stage, accept rules and roles as is due to the authority they carry as an establishment of adults.
Moral Relativism: the concept that the level of morality of a situation depends on each individual personal evaluation of motive behind the action- that each individual decides for him or herself based on their own, perhaps culturally diverse, standards whether something is 'right' or 'wrong'.
Object Permanence: the understanding that when one no longer sees an object the object still continues to exist. Piaget believed that infants of a certain age were not cognitively able to comprehend this concept, and that when they no longer saw their mothers it was as if they stopped existing- a traumatic experience for any infant. Since Piaget's time there have been multiple studies that determined that this is actually untrue.
Oedipus Complex: a psychosexual conflict characterized by boys' sexual desire for their mothers and antipathy towards their fathers as they keep them from having an exclusive relationship with said mothers.
Overlapping- Waves Theory: the idea that children employ multiple strategies when attempting to solve a problem.
Parental- Investment Theory: the concept that the root of all parental behavior is an evolutionarily drive to perpetuate their offspring's survival and the continuation of their genes.
Perceived Self- Efficacy: one's beliefs on how much control he or she possesses over his/her behavior, thinking, and emotions in applying these towards reaching a desired goal.
Reciprocal Determinism: the concept that child- environment influences operate in both directions- child on environment and environment in turn on child, etc.
Rehearsal: a method of retaining memory information in which we repeat the information over and over to ourselves, hoping to encode it.
Role Taking: one's awareness of another individual's perspective and our subsequent understanding of their behavior, thoughts, and emotions.
Selective Attention: the process purposely focusing solely on the information one considers most important to obtaining the current aim in mind.
Self- Socialization: the concept that children affect their own development of social behavior through their activity preferences, friendship choices, etc.
Sensory Memory: very short in duration, this is the memory connected to the sensations (sounds, smells, tastes, etc.) our cognitive system is processing as individuals experience them; generally information in this memory system is held just long enough for our brain to process and identify it.
Social Scaffolding: the sociocultural concept in which people who are more knowledgeable offer a
transitory framework for children to support higher order thinking they would be unable to handle by themselves.
Social Referencing: the characteristic tendency to look towards others for cues on how to respond to a strange event that could potentially be dangerous.
Superego: the personality structure manifestation of the internalization of the principles, beliefs, values, and standards that have been learned from primary caregivers.
Systematic Desensitization: a type of therapy founded on the principles of Watson's classical conditioning, in which positive responses are gradually coxed from individuals through conditioning to stimuli that was previously bringing forth a negative response.
Transition Period: a phase in which children from as young as seven to ten years old learn that rules may be made by a group of people (due to their constant peer-play interaction) and begin to think more autonomously about the morality concept.
Utilization Deficiency: the observable phenomenon in which initial uses of a strategy do not improve memory to the degree that they will in later uses of this same strategy.
Vicarious Reinforcement: watching someone else receive a punishment or a reward.
Working Memory: a temporary- storage memory system space in which information from the environment and subject relevant long-term knowledge is processed and kept while it is significant to the activity the individual is working on.
Zone of Proximal Development: the range of cognitive performance between what children are capable of managing without social scaffolding and how much they are enabled to manage with social scaffolding. (visual illustration on sociocultural theories page)

*All of the information on this page was derived from source number 2 found on reference page.*